Cooper, B.C.: The Role of Bioelectronic Instruments in the Management of TMD. New York State Dental Journal, 61 (9) 48-53,November 1995
Temporo-mandibular disorders (TMD) comprise as a group of conditions that can affect the form and function of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), masticastory muscles and dental apparatus. Proper management of TMD by the dentist requires accurate appraisal of the status of the patient’s dentition, TMJ and associated neuromusclar apparatus. Certain predefined standards or parameters of function/dysfunction are accepted by the profession. Electronic instrumentation provides objective measurement of many of these biological phenomena, and thus can be used throughout treatment for critical analyses that monitor and enhance treatment efficacy. A treatment protocol for TMD is presented that uses electronic instrumentation to establish a neuromuscluar occlusion.